21st Century U.S. Military Manuals: Army Aviation Operations Field Manual - FM 1-100

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Contour Intervals Types of Slopes Percentage of Slope Terrain Features Interpretation of Terrain Features Orienting the Map Terrain Association Usage Tactical Considerations Movement and Route Selection Navigation Methods Night Navigation Navigator's Duties Terrain Association Navigation Dead Reckoning Navigation Stabilized Turret Alignment Navigation Combination Navigation Desert Terrain Mountain Terrain Jungle Terrain Arctic Terrain Urban Areas Set Up a Sustainment Program Set Up a Train-the-Trainer Program Set Up a Land Navigation Course Index-1 iv FM This manual applies to every soldier in the Army regardless of service branch, MOS, or rank.

This manual also contains both doctrine and training guidance on these subjects. Part One addresses map reading and Part Two, land navigation. The appendixes include a list of exportable training materials, a matrix of land navigation tasks, an introduction to orienteering, and a discussion of several devices that can assist the soldier in land navigation. This chapter describes and illustrates this approach to teaching these skills.

The critical soldiering skills of move, shoot, and communicate must be trained, practiced, and sustained at every level in the schools as well as in the unit. The map reading and land navigation skills taught at each level are critical to the soldiering skills of the duty position for which he is being school-trained. Therefore, they are also a prerequisite for a critical skill at a more advanced level. A soldier completing initial-entry training must be prepared to become a team member.

He must be proficient in the basic map reading and dead reckoning skills. This duty position requires expertise in the skills of map reading, dead reckoning, and terrain association. Map reading and land navigation at skill level 3 requires development of problem-solving skills; for example, route selection and squad tactical movement. Planning tactical movements, developing unit sustainment, and making decisions are the important land navigation skills at this level. Officers follow similar progression.

A new second lieutenant must have mastered map reading and land navigation skills, and have an aptitude for dead reckoning and terrain association. He is required to execute the orders and operations of his commander. Map reading and land navigation at this level require development of the problem-solving skills of route selection and tactical movement.

The commander must plan and execute operations with full consideration to all aspects of navigation. The staff officer must recommend battlefield placement of all administrative, logistical, and personnel resources.

These recommendations cannot be tactically sound unless the estimate process includes a detailed analysis of the area of operations. This ability requires expertise in all map reading and navigation skills to include the use of nonmilitary maps, aerial photographs, and terrain analysis with respect to both friendly and enemy FM A program of demonstrated proficiency of all the preceding skill levels to the specified conditions and standards is a prerequisite to the successful implementation of a building-block training approach.

This approach reflects duty position responsibilities in map reading and land navigation. An understanding of the fundamental techniques of dead reckoning or field-expedient methods is a basic survival skill that each soldier must develop at the initial-entry level. This skill provides a support foundation for more interpretive analysis at intermediate skill levels 2 and 3, with final progression to level 4.

Mastery of all map reading and land navigation tasks required in previous duty positions is essential for the sequential development of increasingly difficult abilities.

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This building-block approach is supported by scope statements. It is part of the training doctrine at each level in the institutional training environment of each course. Innovative training devices and materials are being developed for use in the institution, ROTC regions, and the field. See Appendixes E and H. Standardization is achieved through the mandatory core. Exportable training material is made available to support Armywide implementation.

They coordinate the mode of evacuation of casualties through the appropriate channels.

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They review all installation safety regulations. Unit leaders must complete a thorough terrain reconnaissance before using an area for land navigation training.


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They should look for dangerous terrain, heavy trafficked roads, water obstacles, wildlife, and training debris. No one knows who drew, molded, laced together, or scratched out in the dirt the first map. But a study of history reveals that the most pressing demands for accuracy and detail in mapping have come as the result of military needs. Today, the complexities of tactical operations and deployment of troops are such that it is essential for all soldiers to be able to read and interpret their maps in order to move quickly and effectively on the battlefield.

This chapter includes the definition and purpose of a map and describes map security, types, categories, and scales. It uses colors, symbols, and labels to represent features found on the ground. The ideal representation would be realized if every feature of the area being mapped could be shown in true shape. Obviously this is impossible, and an attempt to plot each feature true to scale would result in a product impossible to read even with the aid of a magnifying glass.

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Therefore, to be understandable, features must be represented by conventional signs and symbols. To be legible, many of these must be exaggerated in size, often far beyond the actual ground limits of the feature represented. On a , scale map, the prescribed symbol for a building covers an area about feet square on the ground; a road symbol is equivalent to a road about feet wide on the ground; the symbol for a single-track railroad the length of a cross-tie is equivalent to a railroad cross-tie about 1, feet on the ground.

The portrayal of many features requires similar exaggeration. Therefore, the selection of features to be shown, as well as their portrayal, is in accord with the guidance established by the Defense Mapping Agency. PURPOSE A map provides information on the existence, the location of, and the distance between ground features, such as populated places and routes of travel and communication.

It also indicates variations in terrain, heights of natural features, and the extent of vegetation cover. With our military forces dispersed throughout the world, it is necessary to rely on maps to provide information to our combat elements and to resolve logistical operations far from our shores. Soldiers and materials must be transported, stored, and placed into operation at the proper time and place. Much of this planning must be done by using maps.

Therefore, any operation requires a supply of maps; however, the finest maps available are worthless unless the map user knows how to read them. Local command supplements to AR provide tables of initial allowances for maps. In the division, however, maps are a responsibility of the G2 section. Part 3 of this catalog, Topographic Maps, has five volumes. Using the delineated map index, find the map or maps you want based upon the location of the nearest city. With this information, order maps using the following forms: 1 Standard Form It can be typed or handwritten; it is used for mailing or over-thecounter service.

Same as SF You can order copies of only one map sheet on each form. This is a message form to be used for urgent ordering. With the exception of the message form DD , the numbered sections of all forms are the same. Stock numbers are also listed in map catalogs, which are available at division and higher levels and occasionally in smaller units. A map catalog consists of small-scale maps upon which the outlines of the individual map sheets of a series have been delineated.

Another document that is an aid to the map user is the gazetteer. A gazetteer lists all the names appearing on a map series of a geographical area, a designation that identifies what is located at that place name, a grid reference, a sheet number of the map upon which the name appeared, and the latitude and longitude of the named features.

Gazetteers are prepared for maps of foreign areas only. If a map falls into unauthorized hands, it could easily endanger military operations by providing information of friendly plans or areas of interest to the enemy. Even more important would be a map on which the movements or positions of friendly soldiers were marked.

It is possible, even though the markings on a map have been erased, to determine some of the erased information. Maps are documents that must not fall into unauthorized hands. If a map is no longer needed, it must be turned in to the proper authority. If a map is in danger of being captured, it must be destroyed. The best method of destruction is by burning it and scattering the ashes.

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If burning is not possible, the map can be torn into small pieces and scattered over a wide area. Maps of some areas of the world are subject to third party limitations. These are agreements that permit the United States to make and use maps of another country provided these maps are not released to any third party without permission of the country concerned.


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  • Such maps require special handling. Some maps may be classified and must be handled and cared for in accordance with AR and, if applicable, other local security directives. CARE Maps are documents printed on paper and require protection from water, mud, and tearing. Whenever possible, a map should be carried in a waterproof case, in a pocket, or in some other place where it is handy for use but still protected. Care must also be taken when using a map since it may have to last a long time.

    If it becomes necessary to mark a map, the use of a pencil is recommended. Use light lines so they may be erased easily without smearing and smudging, or leaving marks that may cause confusion later. If the map margins must be trimmed for any reason, it is essential to note any marginal information that may be needed later, such as grid data and magnetic declination.

    Special care should be taken of a map that is being used in a tactical mission, especially in small units; the mission may depend on that map. All members of such units should be familiar with the map's location at all times. Appendix B shows two ways of folding a map. DMA produces four categories of products and services: hydrographic, topographic, aeronautical, and missile and targeting.

    Military maps are categorized by scale and type. Because a map is a graphic representation of a portion of the earth's surface drawn to scale as seen from above, it is important to know what mathematical scale has been used. You must know this to determine ground distances between objects or locations on the map, the size of the area covered, and how the scale may affect the amount of detail being shown.

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